In the design and construction of a house it is necessary to solve a huge number of problems concerning the choice of construction and finishing materials, floors of the building, its size and other features. However, first it is necessary to at least approximately determine the architectural style of a private home, which largely depends on the selection of materials and the size of windows and the price of construction.
There are many such directions, and you can use the style in its pure form, or only take some of its features. Let’s deal with the most popular directions in the design of facades of houses and their main features.
Despite the emergence of many interesting modern architectural styles, classical remains popular, because it creates the impression of thoroughness and emphasizes the refined taste of the house owner. The style is suitable for large houses, and its main features are:
- symmetry and clarity of forms, regular layout, proportionality and harmony;
- Decorative elements are necessarily present, but they are not very pretentious. Particular attention is paid to balustrades and columns;
- The materials used are mainly natural: plaster and marble for walls, natural tiles – for the roof, forged metal – for fences and grates.
Baroque style is pretentiousness, pomp and abundance of decoration. The direction is not often used in modern construction – usually only some of its features are used:
- The combination of straight and curvilinear forms;
- The abundance of columns, pilasters, sculptures, gilding and other decorative elements to emphasize the status of the owner of the house;
- Pastel colors are mainly used, as well as burgundy, green, red.
Appeared at the turn of XIX and XX centuries, the Art Nouveau style still has many fans, because it allowed a complete rethinking of architecture, to abandon the austerity in favor of ornate whimsical forms, but without losing that sense of proportion.
The distinctive features are:
- The abundance of smooth curving lines, which is evident in the shape of windows, doors, roofs and other elements. Symmetry gives way to naturalness;
- in finishing uses both traditional and new materials, a special place is taken by ceramic glazed tiles, mosaics and stained-glass windows;
- front of the house in the Art Nouveau style is often decorated with floral motifs;
- The internal layout is usually complex, with numerous turns, descents and ascents, the rooms are grouped around the hall, which has particularly large dimensions.
Minimalism is one of the most popular modern styles for private homes. As in the interior, minimalism involves the use of only necessary and functionally significant details, so the buildings are characterized by the severity of forms and almost complete absence of decor. Among other features:
- laconism, observance of the rules of composition, simplicity, the use of only the most necessary, the multifunctionality of each element, the severity and geometricity of forms;
- preference for natural materials, including stone, wood and glass;
- no hint of pretentiousness and complex finishing elements;
- a single color scheme, predominantly light shades;
- built-in lighting around the perimeter of the house and the presence of large windows, glazing living room to the floor.
High-tech style in its pure form is not often used in the construction of a private home – usually only some of its elements are taken, combining it with the spirit of minimalism. The direction appeared under the influence of industrial architecture, which explains its main features:
- The strict straight lines, restraint and brevity, almost complete absence of decor and the presence of protruding elements of structures;
- the main color – gray, silver-metal and close shades. Metal in the high-tech style is on the special account;
- The presence of large glazed areas;
- If in the interior of high-tech – a demonstration of advanced technology and modern electronics, in the architecture – it is the latest engineering solutions, the predominance of chrome metal, as well as glass, plastic, and rarely wood.
There are a number of trends, formed under the influence of architectural features of individual countries and regions. These include English, Scandinavian, American, German, Belgian and other styles, but we’ll start with the style of chalet, which is also called the Alpine. This trend was born in the French Alps, and originally under the chalet meant a solid and reliable dwelling made of timber in order to hide from bad weather in the mountains. Such a house would look especially organic in hilly, mountainous and wooded areas.
The main features are:
- Gabled gently sloping roofs that protrude strongly outside the house. In the mountains this method is necessary to protect the surrounding area from snow. Under the overhanging roof there are cozy balconies, the second floor is a mansard.
- Facade cladding uses natural materials: the first floor is faced with stone, the second – with wood, the roof is made of natural tiles or shingles;
- All details and decorative elements are applied and functional.
This architectural style, like everything English, is characterized by restraint and aristocratism. Houses turn out nice, inspire a sense of coziness and reliability, in a similar direction perform whole cottage settlements.
The main features are:
- symmetrical rectangular front plan of the house with a small roof overhang and equal sized windows, doors – with filaments, and around the doors – pilasters;
- the true English style uses only red brick, but today it is often combined with white brick and stone;
- austere facade, almost devoid of decorative elements, and the main and integral decoration of the house in the English style is, of course, neatly trimmed the lawn and flower beds.
House in the Italian style will look good in both seaside regions and in areas with dense vegetation. There are no requirements for the size of the building – the main thing is to convey an atmosphere of comfort, peace and relaxation.
The main features:
- flat or almost flat roof, the presence of a terrace with a canopy, shutters on the windows;
- the facade is finished with brick or plaster in light shades, the roof is made of natural tiles of terracotta hue or other materials that look similar to it (shingles and metal);
- Decorative elements have a functional value.
Beautiful log cabins with an abundance of decorative carved elements, like once the wealthy merchants, emphasize the status of the owner and his pride in his roots and origins. A house in the traditional Russian style is an expensive pleasure, but, on the other hand, such a house gives a feeling of complete security and comfort.
- for the construction of the house use a wooden log house, but today for the cheapening of construction it is often replaced by block-house – externally it looks the same, and in the installation is much simpler.
- Constructive elements of the house also play a decorative role, because carried out with a relief or through carving.
- Each house in the Russian style is unique, two identical do not exist.
Scandinavian style in the Russian harsh climate is of particular interest. At the heart of such houses – functionality, natural materials, the absence of bright fanciful details, because the main thing is to keep warm inside the building and to fight back the harsh elements.